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TIMISOARA is the most western like Romanian city, both in democratic traditions as well as in outlook. Within 40 miles from Hungary and Serbia alike, this city prides itself with its elegant baroque squares, churches of many faiths, new German and French libraries and a pedestrian only, downtown. Timisoara is an excellent place to wind down. You'll find a mind-boggling selection of beer patios, cafes, restaurants, and gift shops along "16th December 1898" boulevard.
Timisoara is also a place for ethnic diversity. Along Romanians (65-70%) there are Germans, Hungarians, Serbes, Slovaks, and a Jewish community. And contrary to trends in other parts of Eastern Europe, they do get along remarkably well. Timisoara should be a reference point of a tolerant place, of a community with higher purpose.
Timisoara has a number of museums, ancient cathedrals, monuments and parks that are worth a visit. The surroundings of Timisoara are rich in tourist sights. The towns and villages are each a feast for the eye. They preserved their traditional charm and peaceful atmosphere. The local people are pleasant, cheerful, and hard working. One should come here if one really wants to get to know them.
The oldest buildings of the present historical center of Timisoara were built at the beginning of the 18th Century, which is why it is often known only as a Baroque city. The town itself is much older but, except for parts of the Huniade castle, neither the medieval urban structure nor any building dated before 1716 can be seen today.
Timisoara is located in a swampy plain where two rivers, Timis and Bega, periodically flooded the territory. The confused network of subsidiary streams and swamps led to the fact the city, built on both sides of the river Bega, took its name from the river Timis.
Brasov was founded in 1211 by the Teutonic Knights and later occupied by Saxons, who called the settlement Kronstadt. The town became a center of Protestantism and was a commercial center of the principality of Transylvania. In 1535 Johannes Honterus established the first printing press in Transylvania in Brasov. In 1867 all of Transylvania, including Brasov, was incorporated into Hungary, and in 1920, by the Treaty of Trianon, the region passed to Romania. From 1950 to 1960 the city was called Orasul Stalin (Stalin City) to honor the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.
Places of interest in the city include remnants of a citadel built in 1553, a 14th-century Gothic church, the 13th-century Church of Saint Bartholomew, and the town hall (1420). Two cultural centers are the Brasov Regional Library, which has collections of ancient Romanian manuscripts, and a historical museum housed in the 15th-century building of the first Romanian school. The Transylvania University of Brasov (founded in 1971) is also here.
German JASSY, city, capital of Iasi judet (county), northeastern Romania. It is situated on the Bahlui River near its confluence with the Prut, in the Moldavian plain, 8 miles (13 km) west of the border with Moldova and 200 miles northeast of Bucharest.
There were recognizable settlements at the site in the 7th century. The town received its German name (perhaps from the Cuman jagers, or bowmen) in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, when it became a fortified customs post on the trade routes along the Prut Valley. In the mid-15th century it became a residence of the prince of Moldavia. From 1565 to 1862, after the union of the Romanian principalities, it was the capital of Moldavia.
Iasi was sacked several times by Turks, Tatars, and Poles, was burned to the ground on one occasion, and suffered a plague in 1734; but it endured as a cultural and economic centre. In 1641, Prince Vasile Lupu established a school and set up a printing press in the Byzantine church of the Trei Ierarhi (Three Hierarchs), built 1635-39, from which the first book printed in Moldavia was issued.
Other historical buildings include the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University (founded 1860), the church of St. Nicholas built by Stephen (Stefan) the Great in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Vasile Alecsandri National Theatre (1894), and the flamboyant neo-Gothic Palace of Culture (finished 1929). The city has several educational and research institutes and a branch of the Academy of Romania. It has good road and rail connections and an expanding industry, including chemicals, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and textiles.
Constanta county, southeastern Romania, bounded by Bulgaria on the south. The Black Sea lies to the east, and the northward-draining Danube River delimits the county's western border. Constanta judet, consisting mostly of lowlands, contains several lakes. Constanta city, Romania's principal seaport, is the county seat. Agricultural activities include livestock raising and cereal and vineyard cultivation. Manufactured products of Constanta and other towns in the county include machinery, metal products, building materials, textiles, and paper. Archaeological museums, containing artifacts from the Neolithic period and from Greek and Roman occupations, are located in Eforie Sud and Mangalia.
Mangalia was built on the ruins of an ancient Greek city that was founded in the 6th century BC. A 15th-century Turkish mosque and an ancient tomb (4th century AD) are situated in Mangalia. Three churches, built one on top of another, and underground passages with 10th-century Cyrillic inscriptions were discovered in Murfatlar.
The town also has a horticultural and viticultural research station. A Byzantine city (10th century) was excavated on an island in the Danube River near Ostrov. Adamclisi town is known for the Tropaeum Trajani monument that was built by the Romans after their victory over Scythia Minor (2nd century AD).
Eforie Nord resort, one of several Black Sea resorts in the county, is situated on a red granite and limestone lar. The town also has a horticultural and viticultural research station. A Byzantine city (10th century) was excavated on an island in the Danube River near Ostrov. Adamclisi town is known for the Tropaeum Trajani monument that was built by the Romans after their victory over Scythia Minor (2nd century AD). Eforie Nord resort, one of several Black Sea resorts in the county, is situated on a red granite and limestone cliff and has an outdoor theatre. A marine biological station (1926) is located in Agigea. Highway and railway connections extend from Constanta city in various directions, and an airport is located in Mihail Kogalniceanu. Area 2,724 square miles (7,055 square km).cliff and has an outdoor theatre. A marine biological station (1926) is located in Agigea. Highway and railway connections extend from Constanta city in various directions, and an airport is located in Mihail Kogalniceanu. Area 2,724 square miles (7,055 square km).
Founded in 1895, Poiana Brasov first served as a touristic district for Brasov. The first hut ever built here was around the year 1904. In 1906, Poiana was designated as a winter resort, and three years later here took place the first Ski competition in Romania. In 1951 Poiana hosted The International Winter Games for students.
Nowadays Poiana Brasov is a modern ski resort with up scale luxurious hotels, mid scale mansions and villas, fantastic apartments classy restaurants, clubs & bars.
The city of Sibiu is an Orthodox archiepiscopal see and a Lutheran episcopal see and has a law college. Among the buildings of historical interest are a 14th-century Gothic church containing a museum and a library of more than 100,000 volumes.
Sibiu is of Roman origin, having been founded as the colony of Cibinium. In the 12th century, German settlers from Nürnberg, called Saxons, formed a community in Transylvania and founded Sibiu as the center of the region. The city continues to have a significant population of German descent. Sibiu is beautiful; indeed a delight for the eyes.
Eerie eaves shaped like eyes peer down from the buildings that line the narrow, medieval streets. At the center of it all stands the proud fortress-church, built by the original German settlers in Gothic sturdiness. History surrounds Sibiu like a defensive wall. The outlines of Sibiu's many churches have dominated her sky line since early times. Sibiu is dotted with many areas of parkland, intimate gardens and attractive tree-lined boulevards. Sibiu's pulling power is stronger in spring - the season of chestnuts in blossom, and the start of various festivals.
THE HISTORIC CENTRE
The city has two easily walkable levels: the 'upper town', which contains most of Sibiu's historic sights, and the 'lower tower', which is a charming wasteland of old houses and cobbled squares.
The Citadel of Sibiu was for centuries one of the largest and best fortified in Europe.
The Citadel was surrounded by walls and defence towers, some of these are still very well preserved and give us a clue of how they looked like hundreds of years ago.
The third fortification of walls were built in 14th century and were consolidated in the 17th century.
Sighisoara is no doubt the best preserved fortified town in Transylvania, with a beautiful and authentic medieval architecture. Sighisoara lies in the valley of the Tarnava Mare river. The medieval stronghold was built on top of a hill, surrounded by forests, and known as the "Hill of the Fortress". The superb natural background against which Sighisoara was set made people call it "a gem of Transylvania" or "a pearl of the Tarnava river". Sighisoara has always fascinated its visitors by its picturesque by-streets, houses, bastions, towers, churches; besides, it is the birthplace of a both historical and legendary hero Dracula or Vlad the Impaler. Narrow lanes winding towards the fortress, church towers, donjons, covered stairs, arched and tunnel fronted houses make up a rich and unique out-door medieval museum.
Since 1992, every summer, Sighisoara becomes a meeting place for youth coming from Romania and from all over the world; they are trying to recreate and revive medieval ways of life by way of the festival of Medieval Art. Then, for a week-long, Sighisoara's old streets and places become lively with theatrical plays, concerts, films dancing, painting, games, conferences, contests and carnivals.
Historic Monuments and Cultural-Tourist Attractions
The most famous bastion of Sighisoara, which has actually become a landmark of the town, is the Clock Tower, also known under the name of the Council Tower, because it functioned as such between the 14th-16th centuries. The Clock Tower is 64 m high, of which 39.5 m are represented by the spire roof; it has four turrets and a wood covered wall walk for watching from the top floor.
In 1780, near the Clock Tower was built a covered walk called the Passage of the Old Ladies, which would shield the elderly against rain or snow falls. The Citadel was built in the 12th century; it was strengthened and extended in the 15th century. Today it counts 164 houses and 13 public buildings.
The solid and variously coloured houses line up along narrow lanes; around them stands a 1 km long defence wall initially provided with 14 towers, of which only nine have been preserved to the day. The most impressive are the hexagonalShoemakers' Tower, the Tailors' Tower and the Tinsmiths' Tower.
Near the Clock Tower, there is the Monastery Church built in the Gothic style. First attested in a document in 1298, the Monastery Church epitomizes all the changes undergone by the town along time. It formerly belonged to the Dominican monks who lived in a monastery placed north to the church. The monastery was demolished in 1888, and its place was taken by the present town hall.
Near the church, there is Vlad Dracul's House, where Vlad the Impaler's father, Vlad Dracul lived before he acceded to Wallachia's throne. Benefitting from the friendship Hungary's king, Sigismund I of Luxembourg, Vlad Dracul (Vlad the Devil) spent his youth at his court. He distinguished himself as a brave knight, punished some citadels rebelled against royal authority, and was bestowed the Order of the Dragon for his prowess against the Turks. Today his house hosts Dracula's restaurant on the ground-floor and a Museum of Weapons on the first floor. Beside various arms, one can see also an oil portrait of Michael Freiherr von Melas (1731-1806). Born in Sighisoara, he became a general of the Austrian mounted troops and fought against Napoleon Bonaparte's army at Marenga (June 14, 1880).
The Church on the Hill is Sighisoara's gem of architecture. A representative edifice for the Gothic style in Transylvania, it is placed on the School Hill (429 m high), and dominates the town. The fortified church has been first mentioned in a document in 1345. Superposed on a former Roman basilica, its construction lasted almost 200 years, and was finished in 1525. The former Catholic church was dedicated to St Nicholas. After the 1547 Reform, it became the main church of the Saxon inhabitants of Sighisoara, who had shifted from Roman Catholicism to Lutheranism.
In the Fortress Square, on the same side as Vlad Dracul's House, there is the Deer House, whose name was drawn from the stag skull set on one of the corners if its façade. Built in the Transylvanian Renaissance style of the 17th century, it is indicative of the way a nobleman's mansion looked like during the Middle Ages. A building formerly used by the local authorities has gathered together the assets of the Local Library over 30,000 works, among which old and rare books like a collection of folklore in the Romanian language printed in 1768.
The ancient capital of Dacia Porolissensis, Cluj –Napoca was recorded for the first time by the Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemy (AD 85 - 165) some two thousands of years ago. It was elevated to municipality during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (AD 117 – 138) under the name of Municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napoca and later to colony, around AD 180 under Marcus Aurelius or under Commodus.
Today the Municipality of Cluj-Napoca is the seat of Cluj County and the spiritual and economic capital of Transylvania as well as an influential academic and medical centre; the heart of multiculturalism and diversity, Cluj is the city where the past, the present and the future forged the identity and local specifics.